Finally. Now that we have one case
done, it’s time to look at the other. If you don’t remember (and why would you?
It was a month ago), the case that means situation has a completely different
origin than the case that means container.
Now that we’ve looked at words relating to the former, time to look at those
related to the latter.
First of all, words ending in -ceive?
All related. Receive showed up in the fourteenth century from the Old North Frenchrecievre, seize, take hold of, or
accept. It’s from the classical
Latinrecipere, which is really
The re- means back, and the -cipere is
from capere, to take or capture.
Receipt, also from the same place, although the Old North French equivalent is receite, so they dropped the P that we
for some reason put back in, if silently. And of course there’s recipe, which
didn’t show up until the late sixteenth century,
and back then it only meant a medical prescription. It’s from the Middle Frenchrécipé, and classical Latin recipe, which means recipe or take. It
had nothing to do with food until 1743, and no, I don’t know what caused that
to change. The original sense only survives in the term Rx, so now you know why
prescriptions are called Rx.
Not entirely out of the blue, but we’ve
only just started. Conceive showed up in the late thirteenth century as conceiven, to become pregnant, and
not meaning an idea until the late fourteenth century. It’s from the Old Frenchconceveir and classical Latin concipere, to conceive in the pregnancy sense. The con- is thought to be intensive here,
and the rest comes from capere. So it’s to really
take. The whole pregnancy thing came from the idea of a woman “taking in the
seed” of life, but I’m not really sure where the idea notion came from
(although it did have that figurative notion in French and Latin). You don’t
take in an idea… Do you???
Perceive showed up in the thirteenth century from the Anglo
Frenchparceif and Old North
French perceivre, perceive. It’s from
the classical Latin percipere, also
with the per- from per, as in the preposition,
in this sense meaning “by means of”, and in this case meaning thoroughly.
Perceiving something is taking it thoroughly!
Finally today, deceive showed up in
the fourteenth century from the Old
French decevoir and classical Latin decipere, which would mean something
like deceive or ensnare.
The de- means from (or possibly is
pejorative), so the word is to take from, in a negative sense.
Whew. And we’ve barely scratched the
surface of these words.
One answer Liz gave me last week,
which she heard from someone else,
is that the reason for the spam comment was because someone was trying to rig
SEO to kick up their website in search results. So in addition to being liars,
they really want to spread their misinformation. Jerkoffs.
What’s just to say hello? The kissing
emojis? Because that’s not really a hello.
I know. The hello.
That many free spins would make me
Look, another spam comment, although
this one’s much nicer than the last one. Not sure I’d trust anyplace called “horsyland”
though (because yes, we all want your amateur opinion). I wish I thought to check where the link actually goes to. Probably
somewhere similar to her email address.
A cancer widow! I mean, it doesn’t
say specifically if she’s a widow, but they always are.
And the sext is fire, apparently.
Frankly, it’s better than what’s usually sent in those.
Okay, this is
the last week of looking at words related to case (situation), the one that’s
from the Proto Indo
Europeankad-, to fall.
Prepare for things to get weird.
showed up in the late fourteenth century from the Old
the classical Latinoccasionem, opportunity.
It’s from the verb occidere, which
means things like fall down or go down (one definition even has it at to kill).
The o- is from ob-, down, and the -cidere comes from cadere, to fall.
So that part makes sense, although I’m lost on how it got to “opportunity”. Oh,
and the word Occident is from the same place.
Considering that word means “western part”, I’m even more confused.
It showed up in the late fourteenth century, meaning rhythm in prose or verse, coming from the Middle Frenchcadence, and Old Italiancadenza—conclusion of a movement in
music. That’s from the Vulgar
Latincadentia, from the
classical Latin cadens, falling,
from cadere. So because the end of a musical movement is “a falling”, we have
cadence. Also related is the word cadaver, which showed up in the late fourteenth century from the classical
Latin cadaver, a dead body, and wow, we didn’t change that word at all in nearly seven hundred years.
Anyway, it’s thought to be from cadere in the sense that when someone is dead,
they fall down. They’re a cadaver.
That also leads
us to the next words we’ll be looking at. Decay showed up in the fifteenth century,
from the Anglo
French and Old North Frenchdecair and Vulgar Latin decadere. That’s also the origin word
for decadence, which seems to just be the same word with de- in front of it,
but of course it’s not. It showed up in the sixteenth century meaning deteriorated condition—it wasn’t until 1970 that things changed to
meaning highly self-indulgent! Also,
it was first used that way in reference to desserts. Anyway! Decadence comes
from the Medieval
Latindecadentia, decay, which is
from decadere, to decay, with de- meaning apart or down.
It’s to fall apart. Well, I do fall apart in front of a dessert…
As the title suggests, it’s been a while
since I’ve received spam in my comments section (for some reason, I’m not very
attractive to spammers). But then I got this one, and boy is it a doozy.
Where do I even begin. Obviously it
has nothing to do with the etymology post that it was posted to. Have I even
mentioned Portugal on the blog before? I don’t think so. In any case, yelling
that it’s a racist country is a pretty intense way to start things.
Those links are to real articles by
the way. I looked some of them up and their URLs match the ones here, which is
crazy, like there isn’t even a malware site that it redirects you to. I’m not
even sure what this spam is trying to accomplish other than slamming Portugal.
Is Portugal a racist country? I
mean, kind of. One of those articles is about Portugal’s colonial history and
how racism still permeates the culture,
but… that’s true of a lot of places in Europe, and the United States as well. I’m
not sure why they’re so intent on calling out Portugal for it.
Also, what’s with the hate towards
Luso? I actually didn’t know this, but “Luso-Portuguese” refers to Portuguese
speaking places in general. There are a ton of colleges (like a little one you
may have heard of called Harvard) that call their Portuguese study programs “Portuguese and Luso-Brazilian”.
Yeah it’s made up… everything is made
up. And the fact that they’re talking about the DNA phenotype… what is that
about? It feels more racist than the racism they’re supposedly calling out.
Finally, they spend a lot of time
talking about Portugal’s poor economy. While there is some concern about it, it’s
also actually doing better than it has in twenty years.
There are issues, but nothing like what the comment describes. Its unemployment
rate is also under 7%, a far cry from the 40% the comment claims. And the average salary being about $900
a month is accurate, but at the same time ignores that that figure is net income, after taxes, and doesn’t
take into account cost of living, which is fairly low.
Portugal: not perfect, but certainly
not the dystopia the comment is making it out to be. I went off on a bit of a
tangent about the country, but really, inaccurate information bothers me. I’ve
also never seen a spam comment not trying to sell me something or infect me
with malware. It’s a mystery wrapped in a riddle.
First of all, a
lot of words with “-cid-” in them are from kad-. Accident, incident, recidivist,
deciduous… all from kad-. Accident showed up in the late fourteenth century from the Old
Frenchaccident and classical Latinaccidentem, from the verb accidere, to befall.
The a- is from ad-, to, and the -cidere is
from cadere, to fall,
from kad-. An accident befalls someone.
up in the early fifteenth century from the Old French incident (we’re
just blatantly copying from them now) and the classical Latin incidentem (incident)
from incidere, to fall.
And again, that’s from cadere. The in- actually means on here, meaning this
word is more like “to fall on”. It’s weird how words can mean the same thing
when you look at the parts of them, but when you look at the whole it’s
showed up in 1863, from the French
(that is, Modern French) récidiver, which
means something like fall back or backslide.
It’s from the Medieval
Latinrecidivare, relapse into
sin, from the classical Latin recidivus,
fall back in the sense of recurring or returning.
The verb form is recidere, fall back,
with the re- meaning back or again. With cadere,
it’s to fall back again. Pretty accurate definition of recidivism.
Now the one that
I was really wondering about: deciduous. It showed up in the late seventeenth century from the classical Latin deciduus, that which falls down, from decidere, to fall down or drop.
The de- means down in this case (pun not intended), and with cadere,
it’s to fall down. And because some trees have leaves that fall down every
year, they are called deciduous. Ugh, it’s unsettling when things make sense.
I had hoped to
finish all the words related to this particular case, but after all this I’m
only about halfway done. So I’m afraid we’ll have to wait until next week.
definitely going to be a long series. Like, if this series was a walk in the
woods, I would suggest you bring a tent.
related to the above case include casual and casualty. The former showed up in
the late fourteenth century, however
back then it meant “subject to or produced by chance”, and it didn’t mean what
we know it as until 1883! The word is from the Middle Frenchcasuel and Late Latincasualis, by chance, which comes from
casus. Casualty showed up a little later than casual, in the early fifteenth century, where it also had a very
different meaning: chance or accident. It was generally used to mean bad things
that happened, and then in the late fifteenth century started to mean military
losses. By the mid nineteenth century, it firmly meant someone who was
killed/wounded in battle.
Now for the
other case. The container case showed up a century after the other one, in the
early fourteenth century, from the Anglo
French/Old North Frenchcasse. It’s from the classical Latin capsa, box,
from the verb capere, to catch or hold,
and this word is traced back to the Proto Indo European kap-, to grasp, the origin
for soooooo many words, for instance the -cept words. Some of these histories
are looking pretty interesting. I’ll have to start going over them.
Right after I
finish all the words related to the first case…