And we’ve still
got two or three left of the words that derive from the Proto Indo Europeankap-,
which means to grasp, and is the origin word for a case that contains something.
Let’s see what weird words came from it this week.
showed up in the sixteenth century,
whereas anticipation came around in the late fourteenth century.
It comes from the classical
Latinanticipationem, which meant
something like preconception,
and its verb form was anticipare,
something like “take care of ahead of time”. The anti- comes from ante, before,
and the -cipare is from capere, to take. To anticipate is to
take… before. I guess that makes sense?
similar in that while the verb came in the sixteenth century,
the noun participation came in the late fourteenth century.
It’s from the Old Frenchparticipacion and Late Latin participationem, from the classical
Latin participare, to participate.
Now, we know the second part is to take/grasp/hold, but the first part is from pars, which is Latin for… part.
To participate is to take part.
Emancipate is a
(relatively) later word, not having shown up in any form until the seventeenth century. It’s from the classical
Latin emancipatus, from the verb emancipare, which is just to emancipate,
and in Roman law meant like emancipating a minor, a son being “freed” from his father’s
control. Or a wife from her husband’s. Obviously, daughters aren’t mentioned
here. Anyway, there are three parts to this word: the e- comes from ex-, out or away, the -man- comes from manus, hand,
and then capare, to take. To take hand away. Figuratively, obviously, although
I wouldn’t mind seeing it literally for a society where wives need
another late word, having shown up in the mid seventeenth century.
Much like the other words, it’s from the classical Latin incipientem, from the verb incipere,
The in- means in, into, or on here, so it’s
“to take in/into/on.” Hm… I can kind of see it, although it requires some mind
municipal. Yeah, didn’t expect that one to be related to case, did you? All
though what is a municipality but a metaphorically contained town? It showed up
in the sixteenth century, from the Middle Frenchmunicipal, and classical Latin municipalis, which is just municipal.
This one doesn’t have a verb form, it’s just a mix of -capare and munus, which meant something like a function or service performed for a community. That’s from the Old Latin (that is, Latin from the first to sixth centuries BCE) moenus and Proto Italic (that’s
a new one for this blog; it’s the hypothetical origin of Italic languages,
including Latin) moini-/moinos-, obligation
or task, from the Proto Indo European mei-,
to change or grow. So because the
Romans had municipalities, so do we.
First, a lot of words
with cap in them, which, hey, sounds like kap-. Captive, for example, showed up
in the late fourteenth century from
the classical Latincaptivus, prisoner,
from the verb capere, to capture—as
we learned last week from the -ceive words. It’s from kap-, which means hold or
grasp, which is certainly a good way to capture someone. And that’s how we get
capture, captor (Latin for catcher), and captivate,
which showed up in the late sixteenth century from the Middle Frenchcapable and Late Latincapabilis. That’s from the classical
Latin capax, which means capable or
and is from our old friend capere. It’s kind of confusing, but if you have
capacity to do something, you’re capable. And speaking of capacity, of course
it’s from the same place. It showed up in the early fifteenth century meaning the ability to contain, or just ability. It’s from the sense of the Old Frenchcapacité, ability to hold, and
classical Latin capacitatem, which
just means capacity.
I guess if you can mentally grasp something, you have the capacity. While if
you don’t, you’re incapable. Fun
fact, capacity in the electrical sense is from 1777, with the idea that
something can “hold electricity”.
Now things are
going to get weird. First, caption. It showed up in the late fourteenth century meaning taking or seizure, from the
Old French capcion, capture or
arrest, and classical Latin captionem,
which meant something like trap or catching.
That actually makes sense for coming from capere, to take. But then in the mid
seventeenth century it started to come at the head of legal documents involving
seizing something—like a “certificate of caption”. From there, people started
using it to mean the head of any
document, even ones not involving capture, then the heading of a chapter/section,
and finally, the description below an
illustration. And that morphed into us calling it “closed captioning”.
also related to the above—really, it’s closer to receive, though. Recuperate
showed up in the sixteenth century,
while recuperation showed up a little earlier, in the fifteenth century.
Both are from the classical Latin recuperare,
which is related to recipere, the
origin word of receive. That word is
re- (back) and capare, take, so it’s to take back. Which is also recovering.
cable. Yep, really. It showed up in the thirteenth century as a large, strong chain used on a ship, from the Medieval
Latincapulum, lasso or rope used
on a cow, and that’s from capere. So because a rope is how you hold a cow, it’s
a cable for holding things on a ship, and now a wire used for transmitting. Sure,